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Chapter 9


  1. To what extent do you think St. Cyprian was effective in his efforts to bring inherited Christian teachings to bear on the unprecedented conditions he and his followers faced?q7a7ixdysk9jhv2ijn7z

When the Roman Empire was hit by an epidemic disease that killed many people, the authorities blamed Christians who refused to honor the pagan gods. Cyprian refuted the judgments describing the symptoms of the disease and reflected on his significance to Christians. St. Cyprian tells Christians that the epidemic is brought to test people’s faith in Christ. He tells people that the just are dying together with the unjust but assures them that the destruction will not be equal. However he does not fully succeed in bringing the inherited Christian teachings to bear on the unprecedented conditions he and his followers faced since most of the people had lost hope and had seen that the pagan gods had much power.



  1. What geographical considerations might help explain why the Han Empire broke up into the three kingdoms shown on page 176?

The geographic considerations that might explain he split of the Han Empire are the location of China along the Yellow China Sea, East China Sea and the South China Sea. These three seas might have led to the splitting of the empire. Other geographic feature that can be related to the splitting of the empire are the Yellow and Yangzi rivers that flow parallel to one another into the Yellow Sea and East China Sea respectively.



  1. What might have motivated Germanic invasions, and why couldn’t the Western Roman Empire prevent it?

The weakening of the Western Roman Empire, transformation of the monarchy, instability of the empire, disunity and economic constrain in the empire motivated the invasions of the Germans. Another motivation was the deterioration of the Roman infrastructure and this is viewed as the major reason for the success of the Germanic invasions.

The Roman Empire was unable to prevent because their power had reduced, the ability to control the senate and the realm affected the central balance of power between the Emperor and the provinces, thus diminishing the strength and response of the empire as a unity. Numerous assassinations of the Caesars also adversely reduced the power of the Roman Empire thus made it hard for them to resist the invasion.



  1. In what ways does the portrait on page 181 seek to represent St. Augustine as a deeply pious man?

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College Du Leman

After studying at College Du Leman, I have realized that I am more comfortable studying International Affairs and Economics than International Business. This is because of my overseas experience and would like to apply knowledge in making my country, Mexico, more stable and prosperous like the USA or instead of doing research. My decision to pursue international Affairs and Economics at Northeastern University is underscored by my desire to be part of the graduate program at you institution. Northeastern University offers the flexibility that I need for such a rapidly but very important field in the world. The environment, the quality of study at your university, and the facilities available for students are par excellent.


International Affairs and Economics is an industry that I believe will help me change my country that has been bedeviled by corruption, use of drugs, murders, and manipulation. Having lived in Switzerland, I was surrounded by people from all over the world and from all walks of life. My interstate in studying International Affairs and Economics blossomed during my study at College Du Leman, Switzerland.  I was motivated to be different from my countrymen and seize the opportunity to change them too as well as the country and its system as large. My interest in international affairs has grown since my time in Switzerland, and hence International Business was my first choice for my undergraduate studies. Right since the beginning of my college study, International Affairs and Economics has fascinated me more with the prospect that it will help me place my country on the global scene and be able to sort help from international and friendly countries to help us sort some of the issues derailing us as a country.


It is a strong belief within me and my family too that the American education system has the best to offer in the whole world. The belief arises from the fact that my parents and especially my father got schooled here. I have a big admiration for my father who schooled here and I can clearly see that he has a different way of doing things, being distinct and wanting to make a difference. This has had an impact on me, I want to be the kind of person that people will see hope in, change the current system in Mexico and make our country a safe place and thus make our people proud of their own country. If I can get an opportunity to be a part of that intellectually stimulating environment, I am sure my talents will be put to optimal use.


Mexico is a developing country with a great potential to play in the global world. Bit it saddens me to see that Mexico has been in the news for all the wrong reasons mentioned above. I believe we only need to change the system and the majority of the people will support the same as long as they see their country provide better opportunities for all, corruption free and ready to make leaps in the international market. The people here are willing, only that the conditions are not very conducive and this supplements my aspirations that when I return after completing my graduate studies, I will start the hard work on changing my country.


During my time in Switzerland and now the United States of America, I have come across different people with different cultures and ways of thinking. I believe that Northeastern University could be the perfect place for me to achieve my dream by continuing my tertiary studies. Since I encountered the outside world, I have had a dream of coming to Northeastern University as it could open my doors and help me walk the path to my destination. By selecting Northeastern, I was influenced by the way your research programs addresses my area of study, International Affairs and Economics and am particularly looking forward on international Affairs courses. I believe that I will be able to contribute to and learn from the academically challenging environment at Northeastern University.



3 questions that teams must ask as they begin the PI process:

What is the current process?

The current process is a new program established by a team from St. Clair Hospital establishing a number of processes that has been helpful in sustaining excellent patient flow in the Hospital for three years since it were launched. It is a result of continuous studies on the processes and functions of a hospital to find a better way of meeting the needs of patients and other people who uses the services provided by the hospital. A new level of performance that is superior to the previous has been attained, that is; it now takes only 26 minutes to serve one patient compared to 135 minutes in the previous performance.

Where are the start and end points of the process?

On arrival at the hospital, intake note are taken which identifies the patients and sample opinions such as taking the weight and pressure of the patient would be generated immediately. This information is put into the system which would contribute to a credible medication.

What are the barriers to the process?

The barriers mainly include the facility, technology and the process issues which needs to be introduced and implemented into the hospital system and get all the employees trained on the process. Also, a better way of getting a patient experience and is will require another company to provide a technology which will satisfy this need.


1.  Create a flow chart that documents the patient admission process before the improvements. 


Patient arrival and takes a seat at the waiting room.

























2.  List 3 problem areas with the patient admission process (these can be the ones stated on the video, or ones that you identify yourself).

  1. The staff is overworked;
  2. The patient is overworked as a result of moving here and there;
  3. The process does not consider special cases in which the patient may not be able to move from one place to another;
  4. Treatment is delayed due to a waste of time preparing a patient for treatment.


3.  The video provides 3 pieces of data that the PI team collected about the process they started with.  List these 3 items.

  1. Data on the time taken to serve one patient before the Performance improvement.
  2. Data on the number of patients served per day
  3. Data on medication given to the patient.

4.  Brainstorming is an important part of the improvement process.  List 4 basic ground rules that teams should observe during this process.

  1. Don’t let discussion continue between two people. All the group members are asked to comment on the subject at hand and thus leading to active participation.
  2. No discussion. There should not be criticisms, compliments or any other comments during the process of brainstorming.
  3. Make sure that that people’s comments and ideas are properly recorded on a butcher paper. The ideas have to be displayed where they can be seen by every team member.
  4. Set time a limit for each schedule meeting as well as for the whole brainstorming process.


5.  List and define 3 techniques that PI teams can use to narrow down their improvement ideas.

  1. Do. The Patient Improvement will have to conduct a trial for the changes it proposes during brainstorming.
  2. Study. The team has to assess the improvement of the conducted trial.
  3. Act. This is the last step in which the changes that have been proven to be effective are implemented.


6.  Describe the new process that the ER team developed.

The new process developed comprised of:

  1. Reduced movements before treatment by having the patient history is recorded in a database system and the same information is accessible by the physicians and nurses in charge.
  2. Development of the sound system which is a technology which helps in communication between the staff and the patients in the waiting room or with other staff members. This would save the time and energy wasted in the nurses coming to call the patients from the waiting rooms and directing them to other different rooms to be attended. For example the announcement “new patient to room 31”
  3. The use of the status board to deal with specific needs and status of the patient.


7.  Once the team revised the admission process, what other element did they select to improve?

The team chose the a model AIDET model which will help better communication issues hence improve the process of getting the patient history. AIDET is an abbreviation representing:

A-Acknowledge: This refers to the acknowledging the patient and treat then.

I-Introduction: Will teach the staff on how to introduce themselves

D –Delays/ Duration

E- Explanation: explaining what is going to be done, why it will need to be done and any other plan.

T- Thank you.


8.  If asked by hospital leadership to explain how the new process improved care in the ER, what 3 pieces of data could the ER team provide?

  1. Data illustrating the reduced time required to attend to one patient. For instance the time spent to move from door to room which has reduced from54 minutes to 4 minutes and from door to provider from 81 minutes to 22 minutes.
  2. Data on the on a higher average number of patients attended to every day which increased from an average of 145-148 to 176.
  3. Data comparing the ranking of the hospital with other hospitals.
  4. Customer feedback on the level of service they are given


Juvenile Justice

7. Explain the evolution in correctional treatment from the mid-20th century to today.

Unlike the adult criminal justices, the juvenile justice system is of very recent origin. The juvenile justice system, practices and procedures have developed over the last century and this has resulted to the now juvenile justice system as practiced by the US and other countries across the world. Prior to the mid-20th century, juveniles were incarcerated as adult. Starting from mid-20th century, from the beginning of 1940s, the US separated juvenile detention facilities from the adult ones. During this time as juveniles were being segregated from adult ones, some jurisdictions created separate court systems for young offenders. Eventually, in mid-20th century, detached procedural standards were developed in juvenile courts. The young offenders were deemed not to be guilty of a crime but were considered to be adjudicated as juvenile offenders. This saw the US create a different legal system for young offenders from that of adults. Since then, now all U.S. jurisdictions have separate juvenile courts today.

8. In 150 words or more discuss the ingredients of effective aftercare programs. 

There have been growing concerns about overcrowding in secure juvenile correctional facilities, high rates of recidivism and escalating costs of confinement. All these have fueled renewed interest in bringing change and innovative programming to juvenile aftercare/parole philosophy and practice. Aftercare programs are the reintergrative services that prepare out-of-home placed juveniles for reentry into the community by establishing the necessary collaboration with the community and its resources to ensure the delivery of prescribed services and supervision. The process begins after sentencing and continues through incarceration after which there is the creation of a seamless set of systems to prevent recurrence of the antisocial behavior. Components of aftercare include juveniles receiving services and supervision and then secondly the offenders should receive intensive intervention during incarceration during their transition to the community.

There is the Intensive Community-Based Aftercare Programs developed in the late 1970s. This research and development initiative was designed to assess, test and disseminate information on intensive juvenile aftercare program models for chronic serious juvenile offenders who initially require secure confinement. The project is seen as one means to assist public and private correctional agencies in developing and implementing promising aftercare approaches



9. In 150 words or more elaborate on the pros and cons of the I-Level classification system and the Quay classification system.

I-Level classification system

This is an integral part of youth treatment programs in the US and other parts of the world including England, Yugoslavia, and Canada. The Interpersonal level classification system was developed in 1979 by Warren and is seen as the most complex of the offender internal classification programs.



  • Separating the juveniles within institutions
  • It consists of developmental classification and a response-style typology



  • Experts warn that the I-Level is significantly related for males, but not for females


Quay classification system

This is a dimensional approach to behavioral, emotional and social problems of juveniles through empirical analysis of data from behavioral problem checklist (BPC).


  • It uses empirical data and can be proved scientifically.
  • Inmates are separated on personalities, background and behavior patterns thus causing fewer management problems but coexist with greater harmony
  • Inmate behavior under this system is determined through participant observation, interviews with staff and inmates.
  • Analysis of the data is done though disposition of incident reports.



  • The program units are not composed of inmates from all three of the Quay units
  • Quay unit behavior of inmates may change when the inmates participate in program units
  • Requires mental health professionals
  • Requires relatively large amount of time for each juvenile case.




10. In 150 words or more what are the four life positions in Transactional analysis?

Transactional Analysis (TA) is an integrative approach to the theory of psychology and psychotherapy. TA is basically described as integrative as it has elements of psychoanalytic, cognitive, humanist approaches. TA was first developed by psychiatrist Eric Berne in late 1950s. TA has four life positions that a person can hold. He further suggested that holding a particular psychological position has reflective implications on how a person operationalizes his/her own life.

The positions Erick Berne suggested are as follows:

1)      I am OK and you are OK – He suggested this as the healthiest position about life and it simply means that I feel good about myself and that I feel good about others too and their competence.

2)      I’m OK and you are not OK – In this position, I feel good about myself but I see others as damaged or less than OK and it is usually not healthy

3)      I’m not OK and you are OK – In this position, the person sees himself/herself as the weak one but the others are a definitely better than self. The person is this kind of state will easily accept abuses as being OK albeit unconsciously.

4)      ‘m not OK and you are not OK – this is seen as the worst position to be in. it simply means that I am in a terrible position as well as the rest of the world too. This thus implies that there is no hope for any ultimate supports.